More than 4.2 million US over the age of 40 are legally blind (best corrected visual acuity of 6/60 or less (= 20/200)) or visually impaired (best with the better eye). Corrected visual acuity of 6/60 or less (= 20/200; visual acuity of less than 6/12 (<20/40) with the good eye, excluding those judged blind). Age-related eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma are the leading causes of blindness and low vision in the United States. Other common eye diseases are amblyopia and strabismus.
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Refractive error is the most common eye problem in the United States. nclude nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (farsightedness), astigmatism (distortion of vision at all distances), and presbyopia (loss of ability to focus near, inability to spell letters).. The National Eye Institute says that proper refractive correction could improve the eyesight of 150 million Americans.
Age-related macular degeneration
Macular degeneration often referred to as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is an age-related eye disease that impairs sharp, central vision. Central vision is necessary for seeing objects clearly and for everyday tasks such as reading and driving. AMD affects the macula, the central part of the retina that allows the eye to see fine details. AMD comes in two forms, wet and dry.
In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels behind the retina under the macula begin to grow, eventually causing blood and fluid leakage. Bleeding, leakage, and scarring of these vessels cause damage and lead to rapid loss of central vision. An early symptom of wet AMD is straight lines appearing wavy. Dry AMD is a condition in which the macula thins over time as part of the aging process, resulting in gradual blurring of central vision. Dry is more common, accounts for 70-90% of AMD cases, and progresses more slowly than wet.
Over time, the affected eye gradually loses central vision as macular function declines. Dry AMD commonly affects both eyes. One of the most common early signs of dry AMD is drusen. Drusen are small yellow or white deposits under the retina. . The presence of small drusen is normal and does not cause vision loss. However, the presence of large and numerous drusen increase the risk of developing advanced dry or wet AMD.AMD is the most common cause of permanent impairment of reading and fine or near vision in people over the age of 65.
Cataracts are opacities in the lens of the eye and are the leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Cataracts can occur at any age due to a variety of causes and may be present at birth. Although cataract removal treatment is widely available, barriers to entry such as insurance coverage, treatment costs, patient choice, and lack of awareness prevent many people from receiving adequate treatment.
An estimated 20.5 million (17.2%) Americans over the age of 40 have cataracts in one or both eyes, and 6.1 million (5.1%) have their lenses surgically removed. The total number of cataract patients will increase to 30.1 million by 2020.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes. This is the leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is characterized by progressive damage to the blood vessels of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye necessary for good vision. It progresses through four stages: moderate no proliferative retinopathy (blockage of some retinal vessels) to severe no proliferative retinopathy (more blood vessels are blocked, depriving the retina of its blood supply) increase. Leading to new blood vessel growth) and proliferative retinopathy (most advanced stage). Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.
The risk of DR is reduced by disease management, including adequate control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid abnormalities. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of DR reduces the risk of blindness. However, up to 50% of patients do not have an eye exam or are diagnosed too late for effective treatment. It is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in the United States from age 20 to her 74.
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that damage the optic nerve of the eye, leading to vision loss and blindness. occurs when the normal fluid pressure in the eye slowly increases. However, recent evidence indicates that glaucoma can occur even with normal intraocular pressure. Early treatment can often save the eye from severe vision loss.
In Addition, He has two main categories of ‘open-angle’ and ‘closed-angle’ glaucoma. hence the name “silent thief of sight.” Angular closure occurs suddenly and is painful. In Addition, Vision loss can progress rapidly. However, pain and discomfort prompt people to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.
In Addition, Amblyopia, also known as “lazy eye,” is the most common cause of visual impairment in children. Conditions that lead to amblyopia include strabismus, an imbalance in the position of the two eyes. One eye is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other, and rarely has other eye diseases such as cataracts. If untreated in childhood, amblyopia usually persists into adulthood and is the most common cause of permanent monocular vision loss in children and young and middle-aged adults. An estimated 2-3% of the population suffers from amblyopia.
In Addition, A strabismus involves an imbalance in the position of the eyes. A strabismus can cause the eyes to fall inward (esotropia) or outward (exotropia). As a result, the eyes are looking in different directions and unable to focus on his one point at the same time. In most cases of squint in children, the cause is unknown. In more than half of these cases, the problem is present at birth or shortly after birth (congenital strabismus).